In contrast, quasi-ultrafine PM alone had a significant effect on

In contrast, quasi-ultrafine PM alone had a significant effect on heart rate and in reducing heart rate variability.\n\nConclusion: These findings indicate that coarse and fine PM influence lung function and airways responsiveness, while ultrafine PM can perturb cardiac function. This study supports the hypothesis that coarse and fine PM exerts its predominant physiologic effects

at the site of deposition in the airways, whereas ultrafine PM likely crosses the alveolar epithelial barrier into the systemic circulation to affect cardiovascular function.”
“Purpose of review\n\nResults of clinical studies on targeted cancer therapies Napabucasin are rapidly accumulating. This is also true in the field of head and neck cancer (HNC). Due to the unique multidisciplinary

needs of the disease, it is of paramount importance that physicians who treat HNC are aware 5-Fluoracil in vivo of the evolving changes that research is offering.\n\nRecent findings\n\nMany targeted agents directed at inhibiting epithelial growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are under investigation in both curable loco-regional advanced disease in combination with standard treatments and in the recurrent metastatic setting. Human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive tumors present a distinct biological profile. Consequently, the role of targeted agents in this specific setting still needs to be refined. Herein we will briefly review the results of the most recent studies on targeted agents. Cetuximab and other monoclonal antibodies (panitumumab, zalotumumab and nimotumumab) have been already investigated in phase III studies; and some results are now available. Small molecules inhibiting EGFR Z-IETD-FMK have still to prove their efficacy. Other agents such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor, vascular endoinsulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, MET, PI3KA and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor

are in development.\n\nSummary\n\nAt present treatment options in HNC are changing and include targeted agents with demonstrated efficacy. A better selection based on biological factors of patients who are potentially responsive to such targeted agents is being actively pursued.”
“We consider the problem of aligning two metabolic pathways. Unlike traditional approaches, we do not restrict the alignment to one-to-one mappings between the molecules (nodes) of the input pathways (graphs). We follow the observation that, in nature, different organisms can perform the same or similar functions through different sets of reactions and molecules. The number and the topology of the molecules in these alternative sets often vary from one organism to another. With the motivation that an accurate biological alignment should be able to reveal these functionally similar molecule sets across different species, we develop an algorithm that first measures the similarities between different nodes using a mixture of homology and topological similarity.

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