In this study of propranolol therapy, Child-Pugh class C, hyponat

In this study of propranolol therapy, Child-Pugh class C, hyponatremia, and renal impairment were found to be independent variables of mortality in patients with cirrhosis with refractory ascites. As a result, the authors suggest that propranolol should be contraindicated in BMS-354825 cost these patients. Although the authors did not report the cardiac status of the patients, we would like to discuss their findings in this regard, upon the findings of two recent articles.2, 3 Krag et al.2 evaluated 24 patients with cirrhosis with a cardiac index (CI) above or below 1.5 L/minute/m2, and they found that patients with low CI showed significantly poorer

survival than those with a higher CI. In addition, hyponatremia and renal impairment, which are independent variables of mortality in the study report by Serste et al., were found to be associated with lower CI.2 Krag et al. stated that a cardio-renal relation in cirrhosis is most likely the result of chronic circulatory stress combined with more acute events, such as bacterial translocation and systemic inflammatory response, which trigger a systemic response. This may lead to progression of a systolic failure with a decrease in CI, starting a vicious circle in which check details the decreased CI leads to accentuated arterial underfilling, decreased arterial pressure,

and renal perfusion, resulting in deterioration of the renal function, which further enhances cardiac and renal deterioration. Recently, Sharma et al.3 investigated the effects of propranolol on normotensive and hypertensive patients with cirrhosis; they showed

that CI significantly decreased after propranolol therapy in both groups. Based on these findings, we think that lowering effects of propranolol on CI and consecutively, development of hyponatremia and renal impairment, may explain the possible mechanism of deleterious effects of propranolol on survival in these Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase patients. Finally, the common usage of beta-blockers for the prevention of variceal bleeding may change in the near future, at least in patients with severe cirrhosis, and band ligation and/or therapies that improve CI may be considered as emerging treatment options to improve survival. Cumali Efe M.D.*, Tugrul Purnak M.D.†, Ersan Ozaslan M.D.†, * Departments of Internal Medicine, Numune Research and Education Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, † Gastroenterology, Numune Research and Education Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. “
“A 50-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with hematemesis and hypotension. She had previously been well. Her hemoglobin was 7.9 g/dL (79 g/l) and she had a mild elevation of alanine aminotransferase (102 u/l) and alkaline phosphatase (187 u/l). At upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, oozing of blood from superficial gastric ulcers was treated with injections of adrenaline.

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