Intradialytic changes in protein concentrations were assessed usi

Intradialytic changes in protein concentrations were assessed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the association serum this website Fet-A or serum RR and other baseline variables. Two-tailed P-values of <0.05 were considered significant. All analyses were

performed with spss version 20 (IBM Corporation, Chicago, IL, USA). One hundred and seven participants were recruited to the study, comprising 11 patients with pre-dialysis CKD (CKD group), 18 undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD group), 36 prevalent haemodialysis patients (HD group), six patients with CUA on HD, 13 with chronic inflammatory disease but normal renal function (CID group) and 24 healthy adults (control group). Group characteristics are summarized in Table 1. Medication use at recruitment is shown in Table S1. Mean dialysis vintage was significantly longer in HD patients (68 ± 8 months) compared with PD patients (12 ± 3 months) (P < 0.001). Serum Fet-A RR remained below the limit of quantification (<4.7%) for all subjects in the healthy control group. Conversely, serum Fet-A RR levels were detectable in all patients in CKD, PD and HD groups and majority of patients with CID (11 of 13). As shown in Figure 1A, serum Fet-A RR were higher in the HD group compared with PD, CKD and CID groups.

Fet-A RR were also higher in PD patients compared with CKD and CID groups. CKD and CID groups, on the other hand, did not differ significantly in terms of Fet-A RR. The six patients with CUA had the highest mean Fet-A RR of 69% compared with only 37% in those on dialysis but without CUA (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, serum total Fet-A

Daporinad cell line concentrations were lower in CKD, PD and HD groups, as well as in the CID group. CID, CKD, PD and HD groups did not differ significantly with respect to serum total Fet-A concentrations (Fig. 1B). Serum CRP concentrations were significantly higher in CID, PD and Loperamide HD groups compared with healthy controls. The CKD group had lower CRP concentrations than CID, PD and HD groups (Fig. 1C). Pre- and post-HD samples were available in 15 patients. Post-HD serum Fet-A and CRP concentrations were corrected for haemoconcentration according to changes in BW. During dialysis, median BW decreased from 76.2 kg (58.8–88.5) to 74.1 kg (57.0–85.5) after HD (P = 0.007). Figure 2 depicts the intradialytic changes in serum CPP, Fet-A and CRP concentrations. Post-HD serum Fet-A RR were significantly lower than pre-HD levels (P < 0.001). Serum total Fet-A and CRP concentrations also reduced during dialysis, but proportionately less than serum Fet-A RR. Uncorrected intradialytic changes in serum Fet-A and CRP concentrations are presented in Table S2. Correlational analysis of serum total Fet-A concentrations and Fet-A RR in combined CID, CKD, PD and HD groups (n = 83) is shown in Table 2. Serum Fet-A concentrations were inversely correlated with serum Fet-A RR (r = −0.242, P = 0.

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