“Loss of body weight is a common (and the most serious) se

“Loss of body weight is a common (and the most serious) sequela after gastrectomy. It impairs quality of life, increases various diseases including infection, and may affect long-term survival. Ghrelin, an intrinsic ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, was discovered in the stomach in 1999. In addition to growth hormone secretion, ghrelin has pleiotropic functions including appetite stimulation, increasing bowel movement and absorption, and anti-inflammatory reactions. In consequence, ghrelin comprehensively leads positive energy balance and weight gain. The fundic gland of the stomach produces the majority of ghrelin,

and plasma ghrelin declines to 10-30 % of the preoperative level after total gastrectomy and 50-70 % after AZD1152 Cell Cycle inhibitor distal gastrectomy. Although plasma ghrelin is never restored after total gastrectomy, it gradually recovers to the preoperative level within a few years after distal gastrectomy. Chronic gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori infection and vagotomy are additional factors that perturb

the ghrelin secretion of gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy. A randomized clinical trial that revealed that recombinant ghrelin administration successfully increased both food intake and appetite, and ameliorated weight loss after total gastrectomy. Ghrelin administration could thus be a promising strategy to transiently improve the nutritional status of patients who who have undergone gastrectomy, but its effect in the long term remains unclear. Further studies are warranted to elucidate Sapitinib mouse the mechanism of ghrelin and to create and evaluate the analogs that could be administered orally or subcutaneously.”
“Genetic and biomarker studies in patients have identified the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM) and its associated polysialic acid (PSA) as a susceptibility factors for schizophrenia. NCAM and polysialtransferase see more mutant mice have been generated that may serve as animal models for this disorder and allow to investigate

underlying neurodevelopmental alterations. Indeed, schizophrenia-relevant morphological, cognitive and emotional deficits have been observed in these mutants. Here we studied social interaction and attention of NCAM null mutant (NCAM(-/-)) mice as further hallmarks of schizophrenia. Nest building, which is generally associated with social behavior in rodents, was severely impaired, as NCAM(-/-) mice continuously collected smaller amounts of nest building material than their wild type littermates and built nests of poorer quality. However, social approach tested in a three-compartment-box was not affected and latent inhibition of Pavlovian fear memory was not disturbed in NCAM(-/-) mice. Although NCAM deficient mice do not display a typical schizophrenia-like phenotype, they may be useful for studying specific endophenotypes with relevance to the disease.

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