Models predict that the efficiency of these strategies is affecte

Models predict that the efficiency of these strategies is affected by environmental conditions,

active predators being favoured when prey are scarce and their detection difficult. The shift between the two strategies may occur through both phenotypic plasticity and local adaptations. Larvae of the fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, are typically stream-dwelling sit-and-wait predators, but some populations breed in caves. We evaluated whether local adaptations or phenotypic AZD2014 clinical trial plasticity determine shifts in foraging strategy between stream and cave populations. The foraging behaviour of salamander larvae was evaluated under all combinations of three test conditions during trials: light versus darkness, prey presence versus absence CB-839 chemical structure and food deprived versus fed; larvae originated from caves and streams and were reared in epigeous photoperiod or in darkness. Observations and video tracking showed that salamander larvae modified their behaviour in response to environmental conditions. In the darkness, larvae showed higher average velocity and moved longer distances. Movements were higher in food-deprived larvae and in the presence of prey compared to fed larvae and prey absent conditions. Furthermore, larvae from cave populations showed higher behavioural plasticity than stream larvae, and better exploited the available space in test environments. Variation in foraging

behaviour was strong, and involved complex interactions between plasticity and local adaptations.

Larvae from cave populations showed higher behavioural plasticity, supporting the hypothesis that this trait may be important for the exploitation of novel selleckchem environments, such as caves. (C) 2013 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aim: In order to define the role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), the clinical outcomes of patients with stage III/IV urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UTUC) were reviewed. Patients and Methods: Clinical data from a total of 127 patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff were analyzed. While 36 patients underwent adjuvant RT following surgery, 91 were treated with surgery-alone. Differences in risk-adjusted treatment outcomes between the two groups were assessed using a multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model and inverse probability of treatment weighting with propensity score for balancing covariates including use of chemotherapy between the two groups was estimated. Results: With a median follow-up of 38.3 months, 3-year actuarial locoregional recurrence-free survival rates were 89% vs. 61% in the RT vs. non-RT groups, respectively (p=0.01). Three-year bladder recurrence-free survival rates were 73% and 52% in favor of the RT group (p=0.02). After adjustment for differences in covariates, the risks of locoregional, bladder, and disease recurrence were found significantly lower in the RT group.

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