Please see Table 1 for IC50 values; as an example, for chloroquine http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Calcitriol-(Rocaltrol).html on 3D7 this would correspond to a range of 8.6 nM�C860 nM. Following 4 h incubation with MB, PYO, and BSO, the fluorescence ratio 405/488 nm increased in both strains yet was more pronounced in 3D7 (Figs. 6A�CC). Similar patterns were observed after 4 h treatment with ART, ATS, and ATM, although the ratio increase and differences between the two strains were less pronounced (Figs. 6D�CF). MQ, QN, CQ, and AQ also induced dose-dependent changes in the fluorescence ratio, which were stronger in 3D7. Interestingly, for both strains much higher ratio changes were observed with MQ and QN than with CQ and AQ (Figs. 6G�CJ). Additionally, we evaluated the effects of SNP and PQT (Figs. 6K�CL). Figure 6 Effect of a 4P. falciparum.
Effects of antimalarial drugs on the glutathione redox potential of Plasmodium after 24 h incubation MB , artemisinin derivatives , and quinoline drugs  exert differential stage-specific antimalarial activity. Accordingly, we investigated whether hGrx1-roGFP2 can be used to monitor the effect of antimalarial drugs on EGSH during development from ring to trophozoite stages. We treated ring stages of 3D7hGrx1-roGFP2 and Dd2hGrx1-roGFP2 for 24 h with 4��IC50 concentrations of the different drugs, which were in the lower nanomolar range for most compounds. Before starting these experiments, we verified that 20 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) led to an instant clamping of the cytosolic redox state determined by hGrx1-roGFP2, as previously reported  (Fig. 7A).
This information was essential, since we had to clamp the current redox state before enriching the parasites after the 24 h incubation via magnetic separation and measuring the redox potential (see Methods). Figure 7 Changes in the glutathione redox potential in P. falciparum via 24 h incubation with antimalarial drugs. One mM diamide served as a maximally oxidizing control for oxidation and resulted in a pronounced increase in redox potential in both strains; in some cells even cell lysis was observed. For all other compounds tested, a clear decrease of the fluorescence ratio was observed in the 3D7 strain, whereas the Dd2 strain seemed to be much less susceptible (Fig. 7B). Interestingly, artemisinin derivatives had the strongest effect on the redox potential.
Parallel determination of redox parameters In order to verify that indeed specific changes in the cellular glutathione redox milieu occur under the experimental conditions chosen for the Dacomitinib hGrx1-roGFP2 measurements, we determined different redox parameters in parasite cell extracts. Concentrations of total (protein-bound and free) thiols, total glutathione, and the redox state of thioredoxin 1 were measured in P. falciparum 3D7 after incubation with different drugs.