\n\nPrevious studies showed that ooverconstruction’ of the hollow part of internodes during primary growth is needed for mechanical support. In this study, it is shown that the relationship between the woody
cross-sectional area of the solid and hollow parts of internodes is negatively allometric at the beginning of secondary growth and nearly isometric later on. Thus, in hollow selleck chemicals llc stems, the first phase of slow secondary growth compensates for the ooverconstruction’ of the ring of wood during primary growth. Moreover, the cumulative production cost of a domatium (estimated as the additional volume of wood required for a hollow stem compared with a solid one) is very high at the beginning of secondary growth and then quickly tends to zero.\n\nMaking domatia incurs high costs early in ontogeny, costs that are then amortized later in development of stems and of individual plants. Characterizing ontogenetic variation of the net cost of this peculiar defence mechanism will help us build more accurate
theoretical models of resource allocation in myrmecophytes.”
“Purpose: Understanding which pathogens are associated with clinical manifestation of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is important to optimise treatment. We performed a study on the aetiology of CAP and assessed possible implications for patient management in the Netherlands. Methods: Patients with CAP attending the emergency department of a general hospital were invited to participate selleck products Doramapimod in the study. We used an extensive combination of microbiological techniques to determine recent infection with respiratory pathogens. Furthermore, we collected data on clinical parameters
and potential risk factors. Results: From November 2007 through January 2010, 339 patients were included. Single bacterial infection was found in 39% of these patients, single viral infection in 12%, and mixed bacterial-viral infection in 11%. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently identified pathogen (22%; n=74). Infection with atypical bacteria was detected in 69 (20%) of the patients. Conclusion: Initial empirical antibiotics should be effective against S. pneumoniae, the most common pathogen identified in CAP patients. The large proportion of patients with infection with atypical bacteria points to the need for improved diagnostic algorithms including atypical bacteria, especially since these atypical bacteria are not covered by the first-choice antibiotic treatment according to the recently revised Dutch guidelines on the management of CAP.”
“Background: Most studies have categorized all antiplatelet drugs into one category. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of repeat head computed tomography (RHCT) and outcomes in patients on low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid; ASA) therapy.