Primer3 software LXH254 nmr was used to design discriminating PCR primers based on the set of discriminating locations identified. Three primers were designed at each discriminating
location: a 5′-forward primer with the node X call in the 3′ position; a 5′-forward primer with the node Y call in the 3′ position; and a single 3′-reverse primer. A base call at the discriminating location is determined by two PCR reactions where one of the two yields a lower cycle threshold (Ct) value. The RT-PCR primers used are shown in Additional File 2. Real-time PCR assays for F. tularensis typing Real-time PCR assays to identify F. tularensis subspecies and clades were developed using SYBR® Green (BioRad, Hercules CA) which binds all dsDNA molecules, emitting a fluorescent signal of a defined wavelength (522 nm). Reactions were performed in 20 μl volume and contained 80 pg of genomic DNA (0.01 ng/μl), 150 nM of forward and reverse primers and 10 μl of iQ SYBR® Green Supermix (BioRad, Hercules CA). Reaction components were mixed in a Selleck G418 V-bottom thin wall PCR 96-well plate (BioRad, Hercules CA). Real-time PCR was performed
Selleck AICAR using the iCycler iQ (BioRad, Hercules, CA) with the following thermal cycling parameters: 50°C for 2 min, 95°C for 5 min, 60 cycles of 95°C for 15 seconds and 68°C for 30 seconds, 72°C for 30 seconds, 95°C for 1 min and finally 55°C for 3 min. The fluorescence was measured at 72°C in the cycle program. A cycle threshold (Ct) was automatically generated by the iCycler iQ Version 3.0a analysis software for each amplification reaction (BioRad, Hercules CA).
Melt curve analysis was performed to verify that no primer dimers formed. Results Whole genome resequencing of strains Previously, we reported an Affymetrix Inc. GeneChip® array based whole genome resequencing platform for F. tularensis. Our whole-genome sequencing by hybridization approach made use of a set of bioinformatic filters to eliminate a majority of false positives and indicated a base call accuracy of 99.999% (Phred equivalent score 50) for type B strain LVS . The base call accuracy was determined by comparing the base calls remaining after the application of our filters to the published sequence Buspirone HCl of the LVS strain. The bioinformatic filter programs may be accessed at http://pfgrc.jcvi.org/index.php/compare_genomics/snp_scripts.html. Two type A strains, WY96 3418 and SCHU S4 showed base call accuracies of 99.995% and 99.992% with Phred equivalent scores of 43 and 41 respectively . We used this approach to collect whole-genome sequence and global SNP information from 40 Francisella strains. Table 1 shows the list of strains analyzed in this study. Twenty six type A (20 A1 and 6 A2), thirteen type B and one F. novicida strain were resequenced. The base call rate and number of SNPs for F. tularensis A1, A2 and type B strains are shown in Figure 1 and Additional File 3.