PubMed Competing interests The authors declared that they have no

PubMed Competing interests The authors declared that they have no competing interest. Authors’ contributions EM and CE carried out immunohistochemical staining and contributed in data acquirement and interpretation. MC contributed to the study design, data interpretation and manuscript drafting. LC, GP, FF, RG, EG performed liver biopsies pre and post radioembolization in all the patients included in this study. IS was responsible for the database set up and for the statistical analyses. RS was involved in the patient treatment with ytttium-90 microspheres. MD evaluated the morphological features of liver biopsies and revised all the slides submitted

to immunohistochemical staining. CG and FI, RM provided clinical and surgical data of the patients including treatment schedule and CFTRinh-172 follow up. MM were selleck chemical responsible for the study concept and design and for the interpretation of results, helped in data discussion, critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content, and obtained funding for the study. All authors have read and approved the manuscript.”
“Introduction Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a deadly human cancer with very poor prognosis and a 5-year survival of less than 5% [1]. This is primarily related to its late clinical presentation, early and aggressive local or metastatic progression and high resistance to conventional Dasatinib datasheet chemotherapy and radiation

treatments. Gemcitabine (Gem), a cytotoxic nucleoside analog, is the most widely used single agent chemotherapeutic treatment for locally advanced and metastatic PDAC [2]. The efficacy of gemcitabine remains modest with a median survival of approximately 6 months and one-year survival of less than 20% [2–4]. Currently several clinical

studies are underway to explore combination treatment benefits of gemcitabine with other cytotoxic, antiangiogenic or targeted agents for novel and more effective therapeutic strategies for PDAC. In addition, FOLFIRINOX is a combination cytotoxic regimen that has shown a somewhat greater efficacy but also greater toxicity potential compared to gemcitabine [5]. The K-ras oncogene is mutated in up to 90% of PDAC [6–8], leading to constitutive activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK ADP ribosylation factor signal transduction pathway and suggesting that this pathway could represent an important target for PDAC therapy. Sorafenib (So, Nexavar, BAY 43-9006) is a novel, potent, orally available multikinase inhibitor targeting Raf serine/threonine kinases as well as different receptor tyrosine kinases including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), c-Kit, FLT-3 and RET [9, 10]. In preclinical studies sorafenib has shown significant antitumor responses in several tumor types including renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer and melanoma based in part on its inhibitory effect on the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and angiogenesis pathways [9–11].

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