Results. The range of the physiologic index was quite broad, with very few individuals having total scores of either 0 or 10. Those with an index of 7-10 had a hazard ratio of 3.80 (95% confidence interval, 2.82-5.13) for mortality compared to those with scores of 0-2, after adjustment for demographics, behavioral risk factors, and clinically diagnosed conditions. Associations with mobility limitation
and ADL difficulty were also significant. The index explained about 40% of the age effect on mortality risk.
Conclusion. Older adults with low levels of markers of chronic disease are rather rare but have remarkably good health outcomes. The ability of such an index to distinguish Z-IETD-FMK order usual from
low risk might provide an opportunity to better understand optimal health in old age.”
“This study explored whether functional genetic variants previously associated with nicotine dependence are associated with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes during nicotine abstinence (compared to satiety; smoking as usual). Thirteen smokers participating in a prior arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI study were scanned on two occasions (after > 12 h abstinence vs. satiety), and were genotyped for variants in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2-141 Ins/DelC; Torin 1 price DRD2 C957T); a dopamine metabolizing enzyme (COMT val(158) met), and the mu opioid receptor (OPRM1 A118G). Significantly greater CBF increases were found in regions previously linked with cigarette cravings among carriers of the DelC variant of DRD2-141 and among the COMT val/val group. Smokers
with TT genotypes for the DRD2 C957T exhibited less change in rCBF in abstinence relative to satiety, compared to those with CC or CT genotypes. Finally, smokers with OPRM1 AA genotypes showed significant increases in CBF in regions associated previously with cigarette cravings. While preliminary, these results suggest a neural mechanism through which these ALOX15 genetic variants may be linked with nicotine dependence, and provide further support for increased biological vulnerability in these subgroups of smokers. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. The objective of this study was to examine whether cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with functional impairment in older Latinos.
Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study was conducted with a community-dwelling elderly population. The sample was a subset (N= 1559/1789) of participants in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA) ages 60-101 with available serum samples and functional impairment measures. Baseline serum samples were assayed for levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies to CMV and HSV-1 and for levels of CRP.