The asymmetric distribution of such an activity could help generate regional variations in microtubule behaviours involved
in cell migration.”
“Cancer-germline (CG) genes are a particular group of germline-specific genes that rely primarily on DNA methylation for repression in somatic tissues. In a wide variety of tumors, the promoter of these genes is demethylated, and their transcription is activated. The mechanism underlying this tumor-specific activation is still unclear. It was recently suggested that CG gene expression may be a hallmark of stem cells, and that expression of these genes in several tumors may reflect the expansion of constitutively expressing cancer stem cells. To clarify this issue, we carefully evaluated the expression of several CG genes in human stem cells of embryonic and adult origin. Prexasertib We found no or very weak expression of CG genes in these cells. Consistently, the promoter of CG genes was highly methylated in these cells. We conclude that CG genes do not qualify as “stemness” genes, and propose that their activation in cancers results from a tumor-specific activation process. STEM CELLS 2009;27:822-824″
“Background: Ricolinostat cost ClpB-cyt/HSP100 protein acts as chaperone, mediating disaggregation of denatured proteins. Previous studies have shown that ClpB-cyt/HSP100 gene belongs to the group class I Clp ATPase
proteins and ClpB-cyt/HSP100 transcript is regulated by heat stress and developmental cues.\n\nResults: Nine ORFs were noted to constitute rice class I Clp ATPases in the following manner: 3 ClpB proteins (ClpB-cyt, Os05g44340; ClpB-m, Os02g08490; ClpB-c, Os03g31300), 4 ClpC proteins (ClpC1, Os04g32560; ClpC2, Os12g12580; ClpC3, Os11g16590; ClpC4, Os11g16770) and 2 ClpD proteins (ClpD1, Os02g32520; ClpD2, Os04g33210). Using the respective signal sequences cloned upstream to GFP/CFP reporter proteins and BI 6727 mouse transient expression studies with onion epidermal cells, evidence is provided that rice ClpB-m and Clp-c proteins are indeed localized to their respective cell locations mitochondria and chloroplasts, respectively. Associated
with their diverse cell locations, domain structures of OsClpB-c, OsClpB-m and OsClpB-cyt proteins are noted to possess a high-level conservation. OsClpB-cyt transcript is shown to be enriched at milk and dough stages of seed development. While expression of OsClpB-m was significantly less as compared to its cytoplasmic and chloroplastic counterparts in different tissues, this transcript showed highest heat-induced expression amongst the 3 ClpB proteins. OsClpC1 and OsClpC2 are predicted to be chloroplast-localized as is the case with all known plant ClpC proteins. However, the fact that OsClpC3 protein appears mitochondrial/chloroplastic with equal probability and OsClpC4 a plasma membrane protein reflects functional diversity of this class.