The correlation coefficient was calculated using the firing rates

The correlation coefficient was calculated using the firing rates and the corresponding behavioral reaction times for each neuron. A total of 42 neurons from dlPFC and 36 neurons from LIP were used for this analysis. Similar neuronal times of target discrimination HM781-36B chemical structure were observed in the two areas areas (dlPFC, 107 ms; LIP, 105 ms). Average correlation coefficient values were lower (more negative) for LIP neurons than for dlPFC neurons throughout the cue presentation period (Fig. 10A), indicating that a higher firing rate in LIP was more predictive of faster reaction times in the task. Correlation coefficients

were also computed for the 300 ms of the fixation period (−300 to 0 ms from the cue onset) and the 300 ms of the cue period. LIP correlation coefficient of the cue

period was significantly different from zero (Fig. 10B; t-test, t35 = −3.24, P < 0.01). No significant correlation was found in the fixation period of either area and the cue period of dlPFC. The difference between dlPFC and LIP was found to be significant in the cue period (Fig. 10B; t-test, click here t76 = 3.71, P < 0.001). The results indicate that correlation between the neuronal activity and the behavioral reaction time is stronger in PPC than in dlPFC. We computed Fano factors for the neurons used for this analysis and found that neuronal response variability was again not significantly different between areas and task epochs Niclosamide (two-way anova; F1,152 = 3.25, P > 0.05 for area, F1,152 = 0.01, P > 0.9 for task epoch). Our study investigated the relationship between firing rate and behavioral choice in two cortical areas implicated in the guidance of visual attention.

We analysed data from two different tasks requiring localization of a visual stimulus based on bottom-up factors. Neurons in both dlPFC and LIP are activated by these tasks and demonstrate similar time courses of activation (Katsuki & Constantinidis, 2012a). Firing rate differences between target and distractors become smaller, and the time of target discrimination occurs later, in both areas as the distance of target and distractors increases across the dimension we varied (color), similar to the effects reported from experiments comparing responses to target and distractors from neurons at different distances between the stimuli (Lennert & Martinez-Trujillo, 2011). Despite these similarities in response characteristics in LIP and dlPFC, our results reveal three main differences in the roles of the two areas. First, LIP activity was critical prior to the appearance of the stimulus, correlating significantly with the monkey’s decision regarding the presence of a salient stimulus. Second, this preferential influence of LIP activity on behavior was transient; dlPFC activity predicted behavior later in the trial, after the stimulus appearance.

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