The negative stool- and urine-microscopy did not allow species identification, but as S haematobium and S mansoni are the only two species endemic in Yemen, it can be assumed that our patient had either a mono-infection with either species or a mixed species infection. Neither the reported patient, nor any other infected family member, had had signs or Selleckchem Ibrutinib symptoms of AS which generally manifests 14 to 84 days after infection. Theoretically, the reported patient had a chronic infection; thus, the window has passed for clinical manifestations of AS and paradoxical reactions due to administration of PZQ are no longer expected. Therefore the observed
acute febrile inflammatory reaction and pulmonary decompensation was puzzling. The differential diagnosis included (1) clinical presentation unrelated to the Schistosoma infection (ie, febrile infection with concomitant bronchial hyperreagibility); (2) allergic reaction to PZQ (without involvement
of underlying schistosomiasis); Nivolumab manufacturer (3) treatment-independent, symptomatic AS with delayed presentation; (4) treatment-induced paradoxic reaction (Jarish Herxheimer-like reaction) in a prolonged acute phase of infection/asymptomatic AS; and (5) chronic schistosomiasis complicated by a treatment-induced paradoxic reaction (Jarish Herxheimer-like reaction). We considered (1) to be unlikely in the absence of Docetaxel solubility dmso bronchial hyperreagibility/asthma, (2) unlikely as the very short elimination half-life of PZQ (1–1.5 h) does not explain the prolonged pulmonary symptoms, (3) unlikely as the reaction was clearly associated with administration of PZQ, and (5) unlikely as the high eosinophil count (the patient had the highest eosinophil count of all infected
family members) in the absence of detectable eggs suggests acute rather than chronic infection. We conclude that the patient’s clinical manifestations constitute a delayed treatment-induced paradoxical reaction in an atypically protracted acute phase of infection or asymptomatic AS. Therefore the patient most likely acquired the infection just before migrating to Switzerland, and the chronic stage of infection was—despite a time span of more than 5 months—not yet reached. The patient did not take any medications which would possibly cause retardation of parasite development and could explain a prolonged acute phase of infection. Whether the other family members acquired the infection simultaneously or were previously infected (and had already reached the chronic stage of infection) remains unclear. We were unable to obtain detailed individual exposure histories. The index patient was the only family member exhibiting signs of a chronic infection; namely, Schistosoma eggs in stool and urine. The assumption of an acute phase infection is supported by the patient’s prolonged pulmonary symptoms (see above).