The new test relies on monitoring immune changes by a profile of

The new test relies on monitoring immune changes by a profile of proinflammatory cytokines released ex vivo from whole blood in response to specific antigen stimulation and incubation, respectively.

However, unlike the DTH skin test, which covered only bacterial and fungal antigens, the in-vitro test presented in this study allows, in addition, the assessment of viral antigen-induced cytokine release. This ability to monitor immune responses to viral antigen challenges is particularly important in humans subjected to highly stressful environments and life events [16-20]. The goals of this study were to characterize this newly developed in-vitro assay and to test if it is suitable and applicable to measure stress hormone-sensitive immune modulation in humans. Therefore, we (1) determined first Doxorubicin cell line if there is a cytokine release from human whole blood exposed in vitro to different bacterial, viral and fungal antigens, and evaluated the time-dependent manner of cytokine release as well as the major source of the cell-dependent cytokine production; (2) characterized the immune modulatory effects of hydrocortisone in-vitro at concentrations

shown to reflect stress-sensitive responses in humans [20-22]; and (3) ascertained whether this test is suitable for monitoring Galunisertib order stress hormone-sensitive immune modulation in humans by (i) injecting volunteers with a stress-dose of hydrocortisone (100 mg) or (ii) by subjecting volunteers to the acute stress model of free fall during parabolic flight. After ethical approval by the local ethics committee (NR:195/01; 107/11) and informed consent, blood was drawn from fasting healthy male participants (n = 13, age 38 ± 5 years) in the morning (7:30–8:30 a.m.) into a lithium-heparinized

tube for the in-vitro test (5 ml) and into a standard serum tube for determination of blood cortisol levels (2 ml), respectively. Whole blood, 500 μl, was transferred under aseptic conditions into each tube prefilled with an equal volume (500 μl) of Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) nutrient mixture (F-12 HAM; Sigma-Aldrich, Steinheim, Germany) and the different stimulants (1000 μl total assay over volume). The assay tubes contained DMEM only; DMEM and a bacterial antigen mixture containing diphterie-, tetanus- and pertussis-toxoid (all three combined in 1% Boostrix®; GlaxoSmithKline, Munich, Germany); DMEM and a viral antigen mixture containing cytomegalovirus (CMV) lysate (10 μg/ml; ABI, Columbia, SC, USA) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) lysate (10 μg/ml; ABI) and influenza antigens (1% Influvac®; Solvay, Hannover, Germany); DMEM and a fungal antigen mixture containing Candida lysate (10 μg/ml; Allergopharma, Reinbeck, Germany) and trichophyton lysate (10 μg/ml; Allergopharma, Reinbeck, Germany); DMEM and concanavalin A (ConA, 10 μg/ml; Sigma-Aldrich); or DMEM and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) (5 μg/ml; Sigma-Aldrich) as positive controls.

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