The subjects were randomly assigned to either the control arm (su

The subjects were randomly assigned to either the control arm (supportive therapy alone) or the itraconazole arm (itraconazole 400 mg day−1 with supportive click here therapy). The randomisation sequence was computer generated using the statistical package StatsDirect for MS-Windows (Version 2.7.2, England, StatsDirect Ltd, 2005. The assignments were placed in sealed opaque envelopes and each patient’s assignment to a particular group was made sequentially. Blinding of treatment allocation was not possible. Itraconazole (Fungitrace, Lifecare Pharma, Gurgaon, India) was administered at a dose

of 200 mg twice a day along with meals (or orange juice) for 6 months. Drug levels of itraconazole were not performed. During the study period, no proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing medicines were allowed. Adherence to itraconazole was assessed by instructing patient to bring the empty pill covers of the drug. Supportive therapy included antitussives (combination of dextromethorphan 10 mg, triprolidine 1.25 mg and phenylephrine 5 mg twice daily), iron and vitamin supplements (100 mg of elemental iron as ferrous ascorbate; folic acid 1 mg day−1), and bronchial artery embolisation and/or surgery as and when indicated. All patients underwent the following investigations

at baseline: chest radiograph, CT of the chest, serum precipitins against Aspergillus species, flexible bronchoscopy, sputum/BALF culture for Aspergillus and mycobacteria, spirometry, complete blood count, liver function tests and electrocardiogram. Aspergillus skin test and total serum IgE levels were performed to exclude ABPA. At 6 months CT chest, spirometry and complete blood count were repeated. Liver function tests were performed every 1–2 months or immediately if patients complained of jaundice, easy fatiguability, loss of appetite or right upper quadrant abdominal pain. All data were recorded on a

standard questionnaire. Clinical response was classified as improved, stable or worsened based on assessment of patient’s sense of well-being, gain in weight, improvement in cough and exercise capacity, decrease in the number, and frequency Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) and quantity of haemoptysis. Radiological response was considered present if there was decrease in the size/number of the fungal balls, attenuation of the paracavitary infiltrates or pleural fibrosis. The response was assessed objectively by measuring the longest diameter of various lesions and a 50% reduction was taken as criteria for improvement. Overall response was classified as[2]: (a) improved: improved or stable clinical response and radiologically improved or stable disease; and (b) failed: worsening of symptoms or radiological progression. All outcomes were assessed at the end of 6 months of therapy. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months following completion of treatment.

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