35% of the total responses each from Australia, France, India, Selleckchem NVP-LDE225 Israel and Switzerland; however,
25% of respondents did not disclose which country they lived in. About 88% of the survey respondents were below the age of 34 at diagnosis of diabetes; 36.4% were between the ages of 0–11 years, 27.5% between the ages 12–21, and 24.4% between 22–34 years of age and are thus likely to have T1DM.14 All responses collected from respondents under the age of 17 were completed by their parents. Insulin pump users’ current approach to glucose management. Figure 2a shows the most commonly used pump was the Medtronic Paradigm device (57.6%), and insulin aspart (Novorapid) and insulin lispro (Humalog) were the insulins most commonly infused (Figure 2b). Respondents were asked whether the pump they used was chosen by them, or had been given to them by their medical advisors. As 44% had been given the pump by their medical advisors, this suggests that the choice was made by diabetes physicians and/or diabetes specialist nurses rather than patient choice. When insulin pump users were asked about the
amount of insulin they infused over a 24-hour period 50.6% used 20–40 units, 24.4% used 40–60 units and 12.7% have used more than 60 units. Most (57.3%) reported infusing a basal rate of 0.5–1 units/hr, with 20.3% using 1–2 units/hr and 18.4% using buy Rucaparib 0.5 units/hr. Only 3.2% of respondents infused a basal rate of more than 2 units/hr. Most respondents (52.2%) used the standard or ‘spike’ bolus to cover meals. The majority of respondents (65.7%) had an Protirelin HbA1c value between 42–64mmol/mol (6.0–8.0%), a broadly acceptable range;1,15 13.9% had HbA1c values between 32–42mmol/mol (5.1–6.0%), indicative of overly tight control, associated with
a significant risk of hypoglycaemia; 2.8% had HbA1c values >76mmol/mol (9.1%) and 0.3% had values >86mmol/mol (10.0%) which indicates very poor glucose control. In all, 77.8% of people could recall their HbA1c result before starting CSII; 57.3% reported that it had improved subsequently. About 70% of the respondents reported having a hypoglycaemic episode at least once a week. In most cases (39.9%) respondents were able to sense that they were hypoglycaemic and 51.6% of these respondents confirmed that this occurred at BG <4mmol/L. In all, 79.4% of the respondents reported BG values >10mmol/L more than three times in the month preceding the survey, and most (68.7%) claimed that they would respond by taking a correction bolus straightaway. However, 9.8% reacted to elevated BG by waiting 60–90 minutes before re-testing their BG and 10.1% by drinking water. Some respondents would change their infusion set, in case it had become blocked. Insulin pump users’ reaction to a description of an implantable closed loop insulin device (INSmart).