coli–S. aureus shuttle vector pBUS1. The fusion plasmids, pmsrRp−luc+, psa0908p−luc+ selleckchem and psa2103p−luc+, were transformed into S. aureus RN4220 and reisolated plasmids were further transformed into S. aureus MSSA1112. To determine luciferase activity over growth, three separate culture broths
for each mutant were inoculated with overnight cultures to an OD of 0.05 and grown for 9 h. Samples were collected hourly and luciferase activity was measured as described previously (McCallum et al., 2011). Bacteria were grown to OD600 nm 1.0 and processed as described previously (Hubscher et al., 2009). Cells were harvested at OD600 nm 1.0, washed once with 0.9% NaCl and resuspended in 0.03 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) to an OD600 nm
0.7. Triton X-100 was added to a final concentration of 0.05% to stimulate autolysis (Höltje & Tomasz, 1975; Cornett & Shockman, 1978). The cells were then incubated Selleckchem Sotrastaurin at 37 °C and 180 r.p.m. and the OD600 nm was measured over 3 h. Experiments were performed at least in duplicate. Qualitative differences in resistance levels were investigated on antibiotic gradient plates (Hubscher et al., 2009). Experiments were performed at least in duplicate. Bacteria were grown in BHI supplemented with 1% glucose to OD600 nm 4.0. Culture aliquots were then transferred to glass tubes and the OD600 nm of the top layer was measured in 30-min intervals. Experiments were performed at least in duplicate. Adhesion to polystyrene dishes was performed as described previously (Hubscher et al., 2009). Experiments were performed at least in duplicate. Caenorhabditis elegans killing assays were performed as described previously (Hubscher et al., 2009). The calculation of molecular weight and isoelectric point was performed using the Protean
tool from the dnastar lasergene software (DNASTAR Inc., MG-132 solubility dmso Madison, WI). For the prediction of transmembrane segments, the TMHMM Server v. 2.0 of the Center for Biological Sequence Analsysis at the Technical University of Denmark at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/TMHMM was used. SA0908 and SA2103 are highly conserved throughout all published S. aureus genomes, exhibiting 95% and 100% amino acid identity between individual strains, respectively. Both sa0908 and sa2103 are framed by genes encoding proteins involved in cell envelope functions (Fig. 1). Downstream of sa0908 lies sa0905, encoding the major bifunctional autolysin Atl (Oshida et al., 1995); upstream and divergently transcribed is sa0909 (fmtA), encoding a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein modulating methicillin resistance and involved in biofilm formation (Fan et al., 2007). Downstream of sa2103 is sa2100, which shares 84% similarity to the amidase domain of autolysin E of Staphylococcus epidermidis (Heilmann et al., 1997). The sa0908 gene encodes a deduced protein of 405 aa with a predicted molecular weight of 45.7 kDa and a pI of 6.3.