1 +/- 0.9 mm. Mean volume of resected orbital fat was 4.4 +/- 1.2 mL. Mean retrobulbar volume change in computed tomographic imaging was 3.2 +/- 1.0 cm(3). The change in retrobulbar volume was correlated strongly with proptosis reduction and volume of resected orbital
IPI-145 fat. Linear regression revealed the following equation for Retrobulbar volume change: 0.546 x Hertel change + 0.945 or 0.293 x Volume of resected orbital fat + 1.917.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Fatty decompression can reduce proptosis for patients with disfiguring Graves ophthalmopathy. Because of the close correlation of retrobulbar volume change with volume of resected orbital fat and proptosis reduction, we propose that orbital fat removal may be accompanied by decreased retrobulbar volume after fatty decompression. Evidence of decreased
retrobulbar volume may result in effective proptosis reduction. (Am J Ophthalmol 2011;151:465-469. (C) 2011 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.)”
“Background. There are few data on outcomes after surgical treatment for recurrent thymic tumors. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare long-term outcomes of treatments for recurrent thymic tumors.\n\nMethods. Between January 1956 and December 2009, 344 thymic tumors were surgically resected check details (309 thymomas, 22 thymic carcinomas, 12 thymic carcinoids, and 1 thymolipoma). There were 48 recurrences (13.9%): 30 thymomas, 9 thymic carcinomas, and 9 thymic carcinoids. There were 27 men and 21 women with a median age of 51 years (range, 27 to 83). Retrospective chart review was performed. Relevant factors for recurrence as well as survival and progression-free interval were analyzed.\n\nResults. The median follow-up interval from the initial operation was 83 months (range, 9 to 515). Recurrence adversely affected overall survival in surgically resected thymic
tumors (p = 0.0014). In multivariate analysis, the initial Masaoka stage, incomplete resection, and World Health Organization histology were significant risk factors for recurrence. In multivariate analysis, only surgical management was associated with prolonged survival see more p = 0.0038) and improved progression-free interval (p = 0.0378) in recurrent thymoma. Five-year survival after recurrent thymoma was 54%. For recurrent thymic carcinoma, surgery did not improve survival. For these patients, chemotherapy was associated with improved progression-free interval after recurrence (p = 0.0295). There were no 5-year survivors of recurrent thymic carcinoma.\n\nConclusions. Our data suggest that surgical management is associated with better outcome and is the treatment of choice for recurrent thymoma. For recurrent thymic carcinoma, surgical management has a very limited role, and chemotherapy appears to be a more effective treatment modality.”
“In multi-player games n individuals interact in any one encounter and derive a payoff from that interaction.