In certain cases, the clinical picture of idiopathic hypersomnia can be confused with “atypical depression.” Obstructive
sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome OSAS is a frequent and probably insufficiently recognized condition, characterized by recurrent episodes of complete or partial obstruction of the upper airway, often resulting in oxygen desaturation and arousals from sleep. The classic daytime manifestation is excessive sleepiness, but other symptoms, such as unrefreshing sleep, fatigue, or impaired concentration, are commonly reported.42 It is estimated that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women in the general population meet minimal criteria for OSAS.43 Several epidemiological and community-based studies have shown that OSAS is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity.44,45 Patients with OSAS also have increased risk of work-related and road accidents.46-48 OSAS is accompanied by significant cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. Deficits have been observed kinase assay especially Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the area of attention and memory. Moreover, some studies have
suggested executive dysfunction, assumed to be related to prefrontal lobe dysfunction caused by intermittent hypoxia.49,50 Although OSAS has been linked to anxiety,51-53 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical nocturnal panic attacks,54 and psychotic episodes,55 it is with depression that it has been the most frequently associated. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical In fact, depressive symptoms are considered to be a typical clinical manifestation of OSAS,56 though the nature of the relationship is poorly understood. Right from the initial studies in this field, mood sellckchem disorders were described as significantly more frequent in OSAS than in the general population. In an early report, Guilleminault et al57 showed that 28% of patients with sleep apnea had elevated depression scale scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Over the past few years, the burgeoning interest in psychopathological changes in patients with OSAS has resulted in a large increase in the number of published studies on this topic. Most of these studies have
confirmed the elevated rates of depression, ranging from 20% to 63% in untreated patients.51,58-62 However, Dacomitinib some researchers have failed to find pathological levels of depression or only relatively mild depressive symptoms.63-68 This discrepancy may be due, in part, to the types of approach used to assess depression and the inhomogeneity of the studied populations. Overall, studies using structured clinical interviews and the DSM criteria show rates of current depressive episode in around one-third of untreated patients. When we consider the incidence of mood disorders in patients with OSAS, one important question is whether the incidence of these psychopathological changes is related to the disease itself or whether they are the result of other variables related to sleep fragmentation and apnea.