It is amazing to see how Letourneau’s views on emotions, more th

It is amazing to see how Letourneau’s views on emotions, more than a century ago, were in many ways premonitory. The fact that tech support emotions are “intimately linked with organic life,” his precise description of the sequence of the physiological and behavioral reactions that accompany a strong emotion, such as fear, the idea that emotions involve specific areas of the brain, and the theory that activation of these areas is associated with an increased blood flow have all been largely confirmed by modern neuroscience. The suggestion that temperament or personality traits influence the “affective Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical style” and vulnerability to psychopathology is also an important

aspect of our modern approach to anxiety and mood disorders.2 For a long time, emotions were considered to be unique to human beings, and were studied mainly from a philosophical perspective.3 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Evolutionary theories and progress in brain and behavioral

research, physiology, and psychology have progressively introduced the study of emotions into the field of biology, and understanding the mechanisms, functions, and evolutionary significance of emotional processes is becoming a major goal of modem neuroscience. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Three fundamental aspects of emotions The modem era of emotion selleck chemical research probably started when it became obvious that emotions are not just “feelings” or mental states, but are accompanied by physiological and behavioral changes that are an integral part of them. This has progressively led to today’s view of emotions being experienced or expressed at Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical three different, but closely interrelated levels: the mental or psychological level, the (neuro)physiological level, and the behavioral Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical level. These three complementary aspects are present in even the most basic emotions, such as fear. A detailed account of the many “theories of emotion” is beyond the scope of this review. However, a brief historical survey of the more biologically

oriented ones may help to set some important conceptual issues.3-8 One of the main questions addressed by earlier scientific theories of emotions was whether physiological changes precede the emotional experience, or if they are Dacomitinib only a consequence of it. For James (1884) and Lange (1885), “[...] the bodily changes follow directly the perception of the existing fact, and [...] our feelings of the same changes as they occur IS the emotion.” In other words, according to the James-Lange theory of emotions, stimuli reaching the cerebral cortex induce visceral changes, which are then perceived as emotion. Cannon and Bard (1915-1932) criticized this theory and proposed that the neurophysiological aspects of emotions are subcortical and involve the thalamus.

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