He et al assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of circulat

He et al assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating miR-328 and -134 in AMI selleck product patients.To this aim, this group performed qPCR in plasma samples of 359 AMI patients and 30 healthy volunteers, and in parallel measured high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels. Whilst miR-328 and -134 plasma levels were found to be significantly higher in patients in comparison to healthy controls, the diagnostic value of these miRs as determined by ROC curve analysis was significant, but inferior to (hs-cTnT) levels for AMI diagnosis. Interestingly though, the levels of these two circulating miRNAs were found

to be associated with the risk of mortality and development of HF within 6 months after infarction (miR-328: OR 7.35, 95 % confidence interval 1.07-17.83, P < 0.001, miR-134: OR 2.28, 95 % confidence interval 1.03-11.32 P < 0.001). 183 As such, miR-328 and 134 could be utilized as prognostic markers of post AMI clinical outcome. Qiang et al investigated the miRNA expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) isolated from venous blood of chronic HF patients with ICM or non-ischemic CM. This study identified sixteen miRNAs as differentially expressed between the two patient groups (miR-126, -508-5p, -34a, -210, -490-3p, -513-5p,

-517c, -518e, -589, -220c, -200a*, -186*, -7i*, -200b*, -595, -662) and conducted a survival analysis using the patients’ two-year follow up data. As a result, the levels of two of the differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-126 and -508-5p, were identified as independent prognostic factors of survival in both patient groups (P = 0.003; HR (hazard ratio): 0.19; 95% CI (confidence intervals): 0.06-0.58, and P = 0.002; HR: 2.292; 95% CI: 1.37-3.84 respectively). 132 This study brought to light two miRNAs that could be possibly

used as prognostic markers of the clinical outcome of CHF. In another study, the plasma concentrations of miR-126, -122 and -499 were measured in 33 congestive HF patients with ischemic heart disease and 17 asymptomtic controls. MiR-126 plasma levels were found to be decreased in HF patients, and negatively correlated with age, logBNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) and NYHA (New York Heart Association) class. 135 Interestingly, miR-126 Cilengitide levels increased with improvement of the NYHA class from IV to III, in ten of the HF patients investigated. This finding is in line with a putative correlation of miR-126 with HF clinical outcome suggested by Qiang et al in 2013. However, miR-126 downregulation has also been related to coronary artery disease. 136 Further investigation is required in order to assess if miR-126 downregulation is etiology-dependent or pertinent to HF development. Goren et al aimed to identify circulating miRNAs that can be used as markers for atrial fibrillation (AF), given that AF is associated with poor prognosis in HF patients.

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