Therefore, “encapsulated cell biodelivery” has been put forward as a novel clinical strategy for cell therapy in the CNS. Encapsulation was originally introduced to assist in allowing allogenic or xenogenic cell transplantation. It appears that semipermeable hollow fibers,29 as well as spherical polymeric microcapsules,30 protect cells transplanted into the brain from the immunological graft-versus-host response. As the capsules permit the free passage of nutrients, oxygen, and, indeed, smaller molecules, the cells are maintained within the capsules, and can produce and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical deliver therapeutic peptides to the brain.29, 30 Encapsulated cells have already been used for the therapy of diabetes
mellitus,31 amyotropic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical lateral sclerosis,32, 33 chronic pain,34 Huntington’s disease,35 and for the treatment of malignant brain tumors.36-38 Step 2: Preclinical studies Our group conducted a preclinical study testing the effect of encapsulated native MSCs and encapsulated glucagon -like pcptide-1 (GLP-1) transfected MSCs in experimental
traumatic brain injur}’ (controlled cortical impact- CCI).39 GLP-1 is an selleck chemical CHIR99021 endogenous insulin-stimulating peptide that is secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to food intake.40 GLP-1 receptors are also expressed throughout the mammalian brain.41 Stimulation of these receptors is associated with neuroprotective and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neurotrophic activity.42-44 GLP-1 has been shown Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to improve learning and memory in GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice.45 The blood-to-brain delivery of native GLP-1 is, however, affected because GLP-1 rapidly degrades, with a plasma half-life of between 1 and 2 min.46 Hence, the cells were used as a ”bioreactor“ which constantly releases GLP-1, while simultaneously Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical bypassing the http://www.selleckchem.com/products/lapatinib.html blood-brain barrier. A human bone marrow-derived, mesenchymal stem cell line was used in this study. This cell line was immortalized by transduction with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase
(hTERT) gene.47 Following transfection with a plasmid vector encoding a GLP-1 fusion gene, the cells produced 8.7 kDa of dimeric GLP-1. The cells were alginate encapsulated Dacomitinib and stored in liquid nitrogen until used. Each capsule contained approximately 2300 cells. Animals were randomized into five groups: controls (no CCI); CCI-only; CCI + native human bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hM’SC); CCI + GLP1 producing hMSC; and CCI + empty capsules. Twenty capsules were implanted into the right lateral ventricle immediately before CCI. Even though this technique does not mimic the clinical setting, it was necessary in order to ensure implantation of the encapsulated cells into the ventricle, since the standard stereotactic coordinates become invalid after the CCI due to contusion – related brain tissue shifting.