Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocai

Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocaine SRT1720 manufacturer exposed) mother-toddler dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher levels of aggression toward their toddlers compared to mothers in the control group. Results from model testing indicated significant indirect associations between maternal cocaine use and maternal aggression via higher maternal negative affect as well as lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Although there were no direct associations between

cocaine exposure and toddler aggression, there was a significant indirect effect via lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Results highlight the importance of including maternal aggression in predictive models of prenatal cocaine exposure examining child aggression. Results also emphasize the important role of infant regulation as a mechanism partially explaining associations between cocaine exposure and Veliparib mw mother-toddler aggression. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Prenatal cocaine exposure has been

linked to increased child behavior difficulties in some studies but not others.

Objective: The primary aim was to estimate the relationship between in utero cocaine exposure and child behavioral functioning at age 7 years with ratings made by

blinded examiners during a structured testing session. A second aim was to examine whether VX770 caregiver drug use and psychological problems might mediate suspected relationships between prenatal cocaine exposure and aspects of examiner-rated behavior.

Methods: 407 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 195 non-exposed) participating in the longitudinal Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study (MPCS) were rated with regard to their behavior during a neuropsychological assessment conducted at age 7 years. Raters were trained research psychometricians blinded to drug exposure status. Individual behavioral items were summarized and the cocaine-behavior relationship was estimated within the context of latent variable modeling, using Mplus software.

Results: Two latent variables, Behavioral Regulation and Sociability, were derived via exploratory latent structure analysis with promax rotation. Prenatal cocaine exposure, statistically controlling for child sex, test age, and prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, was associated with Behavioral Regulation (estimated slope beta = -0.25; 95% CI = -0.48. -0.02; p = 0.04) but not Sociability (estimated slope beta = 0.03; 95% Cl = -0.26, 0.20; p = 0.79).

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