An advantage of this new model is the ability to switch off transgene expression. Doxycycline withdrawal in Fra-1tetON mutant mice led to decreased cholestasis and regression of liver fibrosis. Such “transgene addiction” demonstrates the requirement for Fra-1 to maintain the cholestasis phenotype and provides a rationale for experimentally addressing the functional relevance of Fra-1 in clinical cholestasis and liver fibrosis, identifying
Fra-1′s transcriptional targets, and examining its role in regression of selleck chemicals llc fibrosis and elimination of fibrogenic myofibroblasts. Through a careful analysis of Fra-1 knockout and Fra-1 hepatocyte-specific and general overexpressing mice, combined with chromatin and transcriptional analysis, relevant Fra-1-regulated genes were identified. These included induction of the fibrogenic gene, osteopontin (opn), and inhibition of the antifibrotic gene, cxcl9, in hepatocytes. Interestingly, overexpression of Fra-1 only in hepatocytes is not sufficient to induce cholestasis and liver fibrosis, suggesting that Fra-1 overexpression
HM781-36B cell line in other cells, such as cholangiocytes or myofibroblasts, is required for cholestasis and fibrosis. Further studies are required to identify the origin and fate of the fibrogenic myofibroblasts in this reversible model of cholestatic liver injury and fibrosis. Cholestasis and hepatotoxicity are counteracted by protective
mechanisms, including modulating transport and detoxification of bile acids and xenobiotics. For example, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) catalyze the conjugation of toxic compounds with reduced glutathione, thus facilitating their biliary secretion. In additional experiments, the overexpressing Fra-1 mutant mice were protected from 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine- this website and acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury. The proposed mechanism is that GSTP1 (glutathione S-transferase pi 1) is up-regulated by the AP-1 transcription factor, cJun/Fra-1, thus increasing the detoxification of APAP. This effect is unique to Fra-1, because Fra-1-deficient mice had increased sensitivity to APAP hepatotoxicity, whereas Fra-2-overexpressing mice were not protected. Further elucidation of the genetic and cellular targets of Fra-1 that produce hepatoprotection in some situations, but increased hepatic injury in others, should provide new insights into the complex role of AP-1 in liver disease and the potential role of inhibitors of the signaling pathway in the treatment of specific liver diseases. David A. Brenner, M.D. “
“CD81 is a required receptor for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection of human hepatocytes in vitro. We generated several high affinity anti-human CD81 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that demonstrated potent, specific and cross-genotype inhibition of HCV entry.