Acetaminophen resulted in substantial reductions in the incidence and severity of symptoms and was effective in all age groups. In contrast, pretreatment with a single dose of immediate-release fluvastatin given prior to ZOL infusion failed to demonstrate a significant effect on post-dose symptoms in any of the analyses conducted. Exploratory analyses of inflammatory biomarkers in a subset of patients provided insights into potential mechanisms for the manifestation of post-dose symptoms. The timing of the maximum increases in levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma were generally similar MK-2206 research buy to the timing of the maximum increases in body temperature and VAS scores (Figs. 2 and 3), with
elevations occurring between baseline and 24 h and levels returning to near baseline by 72 h. Changes in CRP showed a different pattern, selleck compound with levels continuing to increase between 24 and 72 h. However, it should be noted that CRP synthesis is upregulated by inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6. Serum CRP levels begin to increase as soon as the inflammatory stimuli ebb and therefore may exhibit a later increase and slower decline than cytokine levels . IL-6, IFN-gamma, and CRP levels were generally higher
in patients with a major increase in symptom severity (with the exception of severe headaches). However, both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients experienced biomarker elevations, so the correlation between symptom severity and biomarker levels was weak. Acetaminophen, but not fluvastatin, attenuated increases in IL-6 and IFN-gamma levels compared with placebo following ZOL infusion. In this study, 39.3% of placebo-treated patients reported a major increase in feeling feverish over the 3-day treatment period (Table 1), compared with 9%–16% of patients Selleckchem Forskolin in previous ZOL trials who spontaneously reported post-infusion fever
symptoms at the next office visit [1, 2]. In terms of objective temperature measurements, 10.5% of placebo patients in the current study experienced at least one clinically significant elevation in oral body temperature (similar to the percentage spontaneously reporting fever in previous ZOL trials); however, 57.3% of patients took at least one dose of ibuprofen, which may have lowered the maximum temperature increase. Regarding cytokine levels, our findings are in partial agreement with other studies examining cytokine profiles following IV bisphosphonate infusions. As in the studies by Thiébaud et al.  and Dicuonzo et al. , we found that the pattern of IL-6 elevations closely mirrored the time course of post-dose symptoms and that IL-6 increases were greater in patients with symptoms. However, our data support a potential role for IFN-gamma in mediating post-dose symptoms, whereas the study by Dicuonzo and colleagues  did not. Differences in study populations or use of more sensitive biomarker assays in our study may help to explain this discrepancy.